Steve Smith was out for 23 on his return with the bat as Australia made hay in their tour match at Derbyshire.
Marcus Harris, Usman Khawaja and Mitch Marsh made half-centuries as the tourists declared on 338 for five, a lead of 166, before reducing their hosts to 53 for three in the second innings.
Smith had sat out Australia's third Ashes Test defeat at Headingley after suffering concussion when he was felled by a vicious bouncer from Jofra Archer at Lord's.
He had a watching brief again on the second morning of the three-day tour game at Derby as Australia lost only Harris, run out for 64, with Khawaja and Marsh taking them within three runs of Derbyshire's first innings total of 172.
Australia claimed the lead before Khawaja was bowled by Anuj Dal for 72 and Smith came to the wicket batting at number four.
He made a careful start to his innings, with his first nine runs from 27 balls all coming in singles.
He accelerated with two boundaries from off-spinner Hamidullah Qadri before his 38-ball stay came to an end when he hoisted Matt Critchley into the offside where Qadri took a diving catch just in from the boundary rope.
Marsh also fell to Critchley soon after for 74 and Matthew Wade scored just 12 to leave Australia 262 for five, but Cameron Bancroft and Marnus Labuschagne were unbeaten on 36 and 39 respectively in a stand of 76 before acting captain Khawaja called them in.
Mitchell Starc then followed up his three first-innings wickets with two for 16 in five overs to leave Derbyshire struggling just to give their guests any more batting practice.
Starc bowled captain Billy Godleman for 13 and trapped Dal lbw for one before Peter Siddle had Luis Reece caught by Wade.
Leus Du Plooy and Alex Hughes were together at stumps on nine and 11 respectively.