Danny Haynes struck a second-half winner and Charlton edged past a spirited display from 10-man Burnley to register a third consecutive npower Championship win.
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Sean Dyche's Clarets, chasing a fourth straight victory at Turf Moor, were a man down after 15 minutes when Kieran Trippier handled on the goalline with little intent amid a penalty-box melee.
Johnnie Jackson's spot-kick was kept out by Burnley goalkeeper Lee Grant and opposite number Ben Hamer had to be alert to prevent Brian Stock and Michael Duff before half-time.
The hosts continue to push, with free-scoring striker Charlie Austin predictably providing their main threat, but Haynes atoned for a first-half miss by converting Rob Hulse's knock down in the 69th minute.
Charlton climb to 14th in the table, edging above their beaten opponents on goal difference.
Junior Stanislas replaced suspended winger Ross Wallace in the only change to the Burnley side that went down to a late 2-1 defeat at Ipswich last weekend.
On-loan Wolves midfielder Eggert Jonsson was handed his Addicks debut by boss Chris Powell.
Following a cagey start by both sides, a poor clearance from Hamer presented Chris McCann with a chance that he drilled over the bar.
Austin collected his Championship player of the month award on the pitch before kick-off and almost added to his 20-goal haul in the 12th minute, heading Trippier's cross over the angle of post and bar.
Trippier's next involvement was more unfortunate. Rampaging Charlton full-back Chris Solly rattled the post and in the ensuing scramble the former Manchester City trainee twice cleared off the line.
Referee Robert Madley adjudged the first block to be handball and dismissed Trippier, only for Grant to plunge to his right and superbly turn Jackson's spot-kick around the post
Haynes should have quelled the subsequent rapture around Turf Moor, slicing an 18th-minute volley wide.
The 10 men were almost ahead after the half hour when Brian Stock's rasping 30-yard shot had Ben Hamer at full-stretch to turn behind before the Addicks keeper denied Michael Duff from the subsequent corner with his legs.
Both goalkeepers were excelling themselves and it was Grant's turn to impress once more in the 37th minute, sprawling to thwart a low effort from Haynes that came through the legs of Burnley skipper Jason Shackell.
It might have been 10-a-side on the stoke of half-time when Hulse appeared to catch Shackell with a swinging elbow, but he escaped with a ticking off from Madley.
Burnley continued to create chances after the interval and Austin fashioned one of his own marking, bundling Jonsson off the ball and curling wide from the edge of the box.
The 23-year-old former Swindon man then glanced wide from Dean Marney's cross as the hour approached and he would come to rue an uncharacteristic miss.
Jackson was the provider and Hulse headed back across goal to leave Haynes with a simple finish.
In keeping with their fine display in adversity, Burnley pressed for the equaliser but Hamer denied Austin in the closing minutes.