Root, Anderson post record stand
James Anderson and Joe Root's world-record 10th-wicket stand extended England's salvage operation against India at Trent Bridge.
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Even after Root, who finished on 154 not out, and Anderson, with a career-best 81, put on 198 to take the hosts to 496 all out, England may need a few more sporting anomalies to win this first Test.
But from Friday's wreckage of 202 for seven in reply to 457, the obvious prospect of a stalemate to start the five-match series is perhaps reward enough for their determination.
Two late wickets saw India falter marginally to 167 for three at stumps, Murali Vijay (52) and Cheteshwar Pujara (55) getting themselves out in successive deliveries.
The strong probability is nonetheless that one of the slowest pitches ever prepared for international cricket in this country will have the final say - and hands will eventually be shaken on a tame draw.
The morning session on day four, however, threw up an astounding two and a half hours of cricket as a succession of records tumbled to Anderson and Root.
Their combined efforts culminated in what had been for so long, not just when England were losing six wickets for 68 runs the previous afternoon, the unthinkable end product of a first-innings lead.
James Anderson and Joe Root's new Test match world-record 10th-wicket stand of 198 at Trent Bridge surpassed the previous highest of 163, curiously at the same ground almost exactly a year ago - when Australia's debutant number 11 Ashton Agar made 98 alongside Phil Hughes at the start of the 2013 Ashes.
England's highest partnership for the 10th wicket was formerly 130 - between Wilfred Rhodes and RE Foster, in Sydney in 1903/04.
Root and Anderson established another first in cricket history for this match, the only one which has featured two century 10th-wicket partnerships - after Shami and Bhuvneshwar Kumar put on 111 together.
Anderson's 81 is the highest score by an England number 11, replacing John Snow's 59 not out against West Indies at The Oval in 1966.
Anderson had never previously made a half-century in any senior cricket for club, county or country. His career-best had stood for 13 years at 49 not out, opening the batting for Burnley at Todmorden in the Lancashire League in April 2001.
Anderson, who made ducks in each innings as England lost their last Test to Sri Lanka at Headingley, has now made 98 Test runs this calendar year - one more than his under-fire captain Alastair Cook.
By lunch, they had also replaced an all-time record which seemed sure to stand for years but in the end lasted only 366 days - Australia debutant Ashton Agar and Phil Hughes' 163 for the 10th wicket, at this very ground at the start of last summer's Ashes.
Anderson the bowler was unable to break that famous partnership, but went on to have one of his finest hours with a 10-wicket match haul as England took an advantage they would not relinquish last summer.
A year on, he was hitting new heights - in the most unexpected circumstances.
His pre-existing personal bests with the bat were respectively 34 in Tests, an unbeaten 37 in first-class cricket and 49 not out for Burnley in the Lancashire League - as a young opener 13 years ago.
A stream of boundaries, 11 on the way to his maiden half-century in any senior cricket, made a mockery of that batting CV.
The resident number 11 had ended his last innings for England with tears in his eyes, after being bounced out by the penultimate ball of the match at Headingley to end a brave rearguard as the hosts suffered a shock series loss against Sri Lanka last month.
Here, he played barely a false shot and was only very rarely discomforted by the short ball.
Patience was one of the keys as Root farmed the bulk of the strike in their near four-hour stand, shielding Anderson principally from Ishant Sharma.
The senior partner also went almost 23 overs between boundaries at one stage as Mahendra Singh Dhoni tried to cut off his options.
India created and missed just one obvious opportunity to limit the damage when, with the stand on 'only' 105 and Anderson 45 Vijay failed to hold a low catch at gully off Mohammed Shami.
By then Root, who had 50 to his name when Anderson joined him the previous evening, had passed his hundred with successive off-side fours off Shami.
He went on to his third score of 150 or more, in his 18th Test, before Anderson edged a drive at Bhuvneshwar Kumar (five for 82) to be well caught by a diving Shikhar Dhawan at slip and leave Root unbeaten after six-and-threequarter hours and 295 balls.
It took India less than five overs after a delayed lunch interval to take the 10th wicket at last - just as well because the frustration appeared to be getting to Ishant, after he wrongly thought he had Root caught-behind and entered an altercation when the batsman pointed out he was going nowhere just yet.
It was a comparative anti-climax for Anderson and Root to then fall short of their double-century stand, but another reality check was in store when India batted again.
Anderson might have made a near-immediate breakthrough, had Matt Prior put his gloves in the right place to collect a Vijay edge.
England got a break anyway when Vijay's opening partner Dhawan poked a Moeen Ali full toss back for a gimme wicket.
That seemed sure to be their only success until Vijay was up the pitch to Moeen and edged him behind, and then Pujara carved a cut at Liam Plunkett to a juggling Ben Stokes.
It was still not enough to hint plausibly at a pulsating final day.